16-04-2018   -   Chemistry

Mon 16 Apr. 2018. New sodium-ion electrolyte may find use in solid-state batteries. A newly discovered structure of a sodium-based material allows the materials to be used as an electrolyte in solid-state batteries, according to researchers working on fine-tuning the material using an iterative design approach that they hope will shave years off the time from research to everyday use. The electrolyte, one of three main parts of a battery, is responsible for transferring charged ions in a solid-state battery. This creates an electrical current once the other two parts of the battery, the anode and cathode, are connected in a circuit. Most rechargeable batteries in smart-phones, computers and other consumer electronics use a liquid, lithium-based electrolyte. More

  11-04-2018   -   Medicine

Wed 11 Apr. 2018. Researchers have developed a technique which could increase the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for patient diagnosis. The new technique works by increasing the strength of the magnetic field produced by molecules, and hence increasing their signal when measured by MRI. The team engineered specific defects in diamond crystals that exert a controlled quantum mechanical influence over the nuclear spins in nearby molecules, including potentially those used in metabolic imaging of brain tumours, making them 'line up' (polarise) in a specific orientation. This hyperpolarised state of nuclear spins is highly ordered and increases the magnetic field that can be detected by techniques like MRI. It is the first time that this polarisation of molecular nuclei has been shown using such a diamond-based quantum probe. More

  12-03-2018   -   Physics

Mon. 12 Mar 2018. A milestone in petahertz electronics. In a semiconductor, electrons can be excited by absorbing laser light. Advances during the past decade enabled measuring this fundamental physical mechanism on timescales below a femtosecond (10^-15 s). Physicists now for the first time resolved the response of electrons in gallium arsenide at the attosecond (10^-18 s) timescale, and gained unexpected insights for future ultrafast opto-electronic devices with operation frequencies in the petahertz regime. More

  20-02-2018   -   Nuclear

Tue. 20 Feb 2018. New Approach Can Help Authorities Respond More Quickly to Airborne Radiological Threats. At present, emergency responders who are characterizing potential radiological risk need to take an air sample and ship it to a radiochemistry lab after preliminary screening analysis. The process means it can take days or weeks to get quality results that authorities can use to make informed decisions. The new approach uses existing technologies to detect potential airborne radiological materials in hours instead of days. It involves using a radiation detector to take multiple periodic measurements of an air sample for at least two hours. The measurements are then run through a computer model that uses the data to estimate the potential worst case scenario regarding transuranic activity in the area. More

  18-01-2018   -   ICT

Thu. 18 Jan 2018. Ultra-Thin Memory Storage Device Paves Way for More Powerful Computing. A team of electrical engineers has developed the thinnest memory storage device with dense memory capacity, paving the way for faster, smaller and smarter computer chips for everything from consumer electronics to big data to brain-inspired computing. More

  15-01-2018   -   Physics

Mon. 15 Jan 2018. The atomic dynamics of rare everlasting electric fields. By ricocheting neutrons off the atoms of yttrium manganite (YMnO3) heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, researchers have discovered the atomic mechanisms that give the unusual material its rare electromagnetic properties. The discovery could help scientists develop new materials with similar properties for novel computing devices and micro-actuators. More

  17-12-2017   -   Chemistry

Sun 17 Dec 2017. Uranium to replace plastic? Chemistry breakthrough could pave the way for new materials. Uranium can perform reactions that previously no one thought possible, which could transform the way industry makes bulk chemicals, polymers, and the precursors to new drugs and plastics, according to new findings. Chemists have discovered that uranium can perform reactions that used to be the preserve of transition metals such as rhodium and palladium. Because uranium sits between different types of reactivity of lanthanides and transition metals, it might be able to combine the best of both to give new ways of producing materials and chemicals More

  14-12-2017   -   Nuclear

Thu 14 dec 2017. Revolutionizing nuclear waste reprocessing and saving money. Seeking a better way to capture radioactive iodides in spent nuclear reactor fuel, RutgersNew Brunswick scientists have developed an extremely efficient molecular trap that can be recycled and reused. The trap is like a tiny, porous super-sponge. The internal surface area of just 1 gram of this material could stretch out to cover five 94-by-50-foot basketball courts, or 23,500 square feet. And, once caught inside, radioactive iodides will remain trapped for eons. More

  13-12-2017   -   Physics

Wed 13 Dec 2017. For the first time, a science experiment has measured Earth's ability to absorb neutrinos -- the smaller-than-an-atom particles that zoom throughout space and through us by the trillions every second at nearly the speed of light. The experiment was achieved with the IceCube detector, an array of 5,160 basketball-sized sensors frozen deep within a cubic kilometer of very clear ice near the South Pole. More

  04-10-2017   -   Chemistry

Wed 4 Oct 2017. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017 was awarded to Jacques Dubochet University of Lausanne, Switzerland, Joachim Frank, Columbia University, New York, USA and Richard Henderson, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution. More

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